Magazines were the main media for muckraking journalism. Samuel S. McClure and John Sanborn Phillips founded McClure`s Magazine in May 1893. McClure led the magazine industry by lowering the price of an issue to 15 cents, attracting advertisers, giving audiences well-written illustrations and content, and then raising advertising rates after higher sales, with Munsey`s and Cosmopolitan following.  Historian Doris Kearns Goodwin discusses how President Teddy Roosevelt used the press to advance his reform agenda and his relationship with journalists who make muckraking. The author writes that media coverage has made “significant contributions” to reforms in today`s “progressive era.” Poitras, Marc, and Daniel Sutter. 2009. Advertising Printing and News Control: The Decline of Muckraking Revisited. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 72.3: 944-958. McClure sought out and hired talented writers, such as the then-unknown Ida M. Tarbell and veteran journalist and editor Lincoln Steffens. The magazine`s group of authors was associated with the Muckraker movement, such as Ray Stannard Baker, Burton J.
Hendrick, George Kennan (explorer), John Moody (financial analyst), Henry Reuterdahl, George Kibbe Turner, and Judson C. Welliver, and their names adorned the covers. Other magazines associated with muckraking journalism were American Magazine (Lincoln Steffens), Arena (G. W. Galvin and John Moody), Collier`s Weekly (Samuel Hopkins Adams, C.P. Connolly, L. R. Glavis, Will Irwin, J. M. Oskison, Upton Sinclair), Cosmopolitan (Josiah Flynt, Alfred Henry Lewis, Jack London, Charles P. Norcross, Charles Edward Russell), Everybody`s Magazine (William Hard, Thomas William Lawson, Benjamin B.
Lindsey, Frank Norris, David Graham Phillips, Charles Edward Russell, Upton Sinclair, Lincoln Steffens, Merrill A. Teague, Bessie and Marie Van Vorst), Hampton`s (Rheta Childe Dorr, Benjamin B. Hampton, John L. Mathews, Charles Edward Russell and Judson C. Welliver), The Independent (George Walbridge Perkins, Sr.), Outlook (William Hard), Pearson`s Magazine (Alfred Henry Lewis, Charles Edward Russell), Twentieth Century (George Français) and World`s Work (C.M. Keys and Q.P.).  Other securities of interest include Chatauquan, Dial, St. Nicholas. In addition, Theodore Roosevelt wrote for Scribner`s Magazine after leaving office. While Reformed literature had already appeared in the middle of the 19th century, around 1900, the type of reporting called “muckraking” appeared.  By the 1900s, magazines such as Collier`s Weekly, Munsey`s Magazine, and McClure`s Magazine were already widely circulated and enthusiastically read by the growing middle class.
 McClure`s January 1903 issue is considered the official beginning of muckraking journalism, although the muckrakers later received their label. Ida M. Tarbell (“The History of Standard Oil”), Lincoln Steffens (“The Shame of the Cities”) and Ray Stannard Baker (“The Right to Work”) simultaneously published famous works in this single edition. Claude H. Wetmore and Lincoln Steffens` earlier article “Tweed Days in St. Louis” in the October 1902 issue of McClure was called the first muckraking article. After President Theodore Roosevelt took office in 1901, he began leading the press corps. To this end, he elevated his spokesperson to cabinet status and held press conferences.
The muckraking journalists who appeared around 1900, such as Lincoln Steffens, were not as manageable for Roosevelt as objective journalists, and the president gave Steffens access to the White House and interviews to steer stories in his direction.   Based on a course taught by the author, this book is a collection of essays on American muckrakers in the 19th and 20th centuries, it also includes interviews with contemporary muckrakers, such as Barbara Ehrenreich (who writes about work and women) and Laurie Garrett (who is known for her reporting on health). This is a selective look at the strengths of certain muckraking fonts. Reformed writers used newspaper articles, novels, and books to write about topics such as political corruption, industrial monopolies, and unfair labor practices. One of the most famous journalists of the early 20th century was Lincoln Steffens. Steffens began his career as a newspaper editor in New York City, where he specialized in writing about corruption and bribery in politics. It was, of course, at the height of Tammany Hall and the political machine. Steffens later published a collection of his investigative work in a highly influential book, The Shame of the Cities. The muckrakers of the early 20th century, of course, were not the first journalists to try to expose corruption and injustice. They have continued a long tradition that existed on both sides of the Atlantic. However, investigative journalism – muckraking – reached a kind of golden age, from the late 19th century to the early 20th century.
The intense public interest generated by critical articles on political corruption, industrial monopolies, and fraudulent business practices has led journalists, writers, and reformers of all kinds to sharpen their criticism of American society. Charles Edward Russell led Reform writers with lectures ranging from The Greatest Trust in the World (1905) to The Uprising of the Many (1907), the latter reporting on methods of extending democracy to other countries. Lincoln Steffens wrote about corrupt urban and state politics in The Shame of the Cities (1904). Brand Whitlock, who wrote The Turn of the Balance (1907), an anti-death penalty novel, was also a Reform mayor of Toledo, Ohio. Thomas W. Lawson, a Boston financier, gave a major account of stock market abuse and insurance fraud in Frenzied Finance (Everybody`s, 1904-05). Tarbell`s The History of the Standard Oil Company (1904) exposes the corrupt practices used to form a large industrial monopoly. Edwin Markham`s Children in Bondage was a major attack on child labor. Upton Sinclair`s novel The Jungle (1906) and The Great American Fraud (1906) by Samuel Hopkins Adams, combined with the works of Harvey W. Wiley and U.S. Senator Albert J. David Graham Phillips` series “The Treason of the Senate” (Cosmopolitan, 1906), the Pres.
Roosevelt`s inspired speech in 1906 influenced the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution. which provided for popular senatorial elections. Muckraking as a movement largely disappeared between 1910 and 1912. Ida Tarbell was another prominent journalist. Tarbell wrote a series for McClure Magazine about the rise of the Standard Oil Company and the company`s corrupt practices. The articles, eventually collected in a book, drew attention not only to the problems of Standard Oil, but also to the wider problems of corporate monopolies. Tarbell`s work has also fueled interest in the practice of investigative journalism itself. The work of the Muckrakers evolved from the yellow journalism of the 1890s, which sparked the public`s appetite for compelling news, and popular magazines, especially those founded by S.S. McClure, Frank A.
Munsey, and Peter F. Collier. The rise of muckraking was inaugurated in the January 1903 issue of McClure`s Magazine with articles on local government, labor, and trusts by Lincoln Steffens, Ray Stannard Baker, and Ida M. Tarbell.