Prior to model testing, confirmatory factor analysis examined the appropriateness of each study tool and a measurement model examined the interactions between latent variables and related outcomes. A structural model then evaluated the hypothesis-based relationships between latent variables (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988). Specifically, the extent to which reality tests and paranormal beliefs and/or experiences predicted sleep-related outcomes (lucid dreams, sleep paralysis, and nightmares). Stumbrys, T., Erlacher, D., Johnson, M., & Schredl, M. (2014). The phenomenology of lucid dreaming: an online survey. On the. J. Psychol. 127, 191–204.
doi: 10.5406/amerjpsyc.127.2.0191 The first point asked: “How often do you have nightmares?” Respondents responded using an eight-point Likert scale (0 = never, 1 = less than once a year, 2 = about once a year, 3 = about two to four times a year, 4 = about once a month, 5 = about two to three times a month, 6 = about once a week, 7 = several times a week). The second item, “How troubling are your nightmares?”, was measured on a five-point scale (0 = not at all stressful, 1 = not so stressful, 2 = somewhat stressful, 3 = somewhat stressful and 4 = very stressful). The third point assessed memory, “How often do you wake up and remember a dream” (Schredl, 2004). Participants responded via a seven-point Likert scale (1 = never, 2 = less than once a month, 3 = about once a month, 4 = two or three times a month, 5 = about once a week, 6 = several times a week, 7 = almost every morning). The alpha reliability for this measure was satisfactory, α = 0.68. In 1980, Stephen LaBerge of Stanford University developed such techniques as part of his doctoral thesis.  In 1985, LaBerge conducted a pilot study that showed that the perception of time during counting during lucid dreaming is about the same as during waking life. Lucid dreamers counted ten seconds during the dream and signaled the beginning and end of the countdown with a pre-arranged eye signal measured using an electrooculogram recording.    LaBerge`s results were confirmed in 2004 by German researchers D. Erlacher and M. Schredl.
 The idea of lucid dreaming involves the realization in the dream that it is a dream and not reality, and for some people the ability to change the “action” of your dream as it unfolds. For all its violence and intensity, the experience was no worse than a typical ilucid nightmare – I say it was even better. It was informative. I was still raving about the fact that I had become clear and that the developments that followed were just a story, like watching a movie (albeit in total glory in 3D high definition). Schädlich M, Erlacher, D. Applications of Lucid Dreaming: An Online Study. International Journal of Dream Research. 2012;5(2):134–138. The term lucid dreaming was coined by Dutch author and psychiatrist Frederik van Eeden in his 1913 article A Study of Dreams, although descriptions of dreamers who are aware that they are dreaming are older than the article.
Van Eeden studied his own dreams between January 20, 1898 and December 26, 1912 and wrote down what he considered most important in a dream journal. 352 of these dreams are classified as lucid.  Second, although the direct relationship between paranormal belief and lucid dreaming is weak (see Glicksohn, 1990; Denis and Poerio, 2017), studies generally observe significant positive relationships between paranormal beliefs and the main constructs associated with lucid dreaming. In particular, openness to experience (Smith et al., 2009), creativity (Irwin, 1993; Thalbourne and Delin, 1994; Thalbourne, 2005) and limit thinness, as measured by transliminality (Dagnall et al., 2010c). Transliminality refers to hypersensitivity to psychological material (Thalbourne and Maltby, 2008). In particular, it is “a hypothetical tendency of psychological material to cross (trans)thresholds (limines) in or out of consciousness” (Thalbourne and Houran, 2000, p. 853). As crazy as it sounds, while lucid nightmares can be incredibly scary, you can actually use them to your advantage. Because lucid dreaming is such a vivid experience, it appeals to those who want to explore their inner dream world more consciously.
The idea of lucid dreaming is so fascinating to people because, as some researchers suggest, it is “the ultimate form of immersive experience.” Frequency was assessed using an eight-point rating scale (0 = never, 1 = less than once a year, 2 = approximately once a year, 3 = approximately two to four times per year, 4 = approximately once a month, 5 = approximately two to three times per month, 6 = approximately once a week, 7 = several times a week) (Schredl and Erlacher, 2004; Stumbrys and Erlacher, 2017). This point ensured that the respondents had lucid dreams. Respondents who reported lucid dreaming rated the extent (percentages) to which they were able to maintain conscious awareness for a sufficiently long period of time; fully control their dream body (movements and actions); and designing their dream environment (to make appear appear, disappear or change landscapes or dream figures appearing) (Stumbrys and Erlacher, 2017). In this study, the internal consistency of this scale was good α = 0.81. This hypothesis is consistent with previous work that has shown that reporting spontaneous paranormal experiences is associated with opening and exploring psychological space (Holt et al., 2004; Drinkwater et al., 2017a). This is also consistent with the conclusion that internal sensitivity predicts propensity for psi experiences (Honorton, 1972). These factors, in turn, may also partly explain the relationship between paranormal experience and lucid dreaming. If you`ve never controlled a dream before, it may be a little harder or take a little longer, but once you master it, your nightmares shouldn`t be a problem anymore. Sometimes lucid nightmares can be our body or mind trying to tell us something. Dreams are known to act almost like health warnings in some cases. “Whether it`s lucid dreams, normal dreams or nightmares, it`s very difficult to measure objectively,” she continues.
“There are ways to determine when people are in REM sleep. When viewed with a polysomnogram or MRI scan, brain changes can be seen. But we can`t even say exactly when people are actually dreaming. No one likes nightmares, but there are a few steps you can take to have more control over what you dream of. These things and tips will help you avoid lucid nightmares and other boring experiences. But in addition to the normal elements of the mind present in the lucid state, the lucid dreamer and other dream characters added mental abilities. The lucid dreamer can very often let things happen in the dream that would be considered miraculous if they happened in waking life. The lucid dreamer can be convinced that he has supernatural mental powers in a lucid state. Philosophically, I have not seen a satisfactory account of the lucid dreamer in the literature, although I have read many attempts.
In particular, no report I know of is willing to grant full mental status, full personal status to the lucid dreamer and lucid dreaming characters – this despite the fact that all the characters in lucid dreaming clearly show the sign of the mind. Teams of cognitive scientists have established real-time, two-way communication with people experiencing lucid dreaming. During the dream, they were able to consciously communicate with the experimenters via eye movements or facial muscle signals, understand complex issues and use working memory. Such interactive lucid dreaming could be a new approach to the scientific study of the dream state and have applications for learning and creativity.   In addition to Big Five personality factors, lucid dreaming correlates with specific personality traits (Blagrove & Tucker, 1994; Blagrove and Hartnell, 2000). For example, frequent lucid dreamers (compared to non-lucid dreamers) score significantly higher in terms of location of internal control, need for cognition, and creativity (Blagrove & Hartnell, 2000). Zink and Pietrowsky (2013) suggest that these traits indicate cognitive complexity and flexibility. They also suggest a preference for self-centeredness, cognitive activity, and strong imaginative aspirations. Overall, these findings are consistent with studies that self-reflection and active control are integral to lucid dreaming (Blagrove & Hartnell, 2000). Expert explains what lucid dreaming is, how to experience it for yourself, and whether there are any health benefits to having lucid dreaming Later, in 1992, a study by Deirdre Barrett examined whether lucid dreaming contained four “conclusions” of clarity: Figure 1. Model 2 – Hypothetical structural relationships between auditory and visual hallucinations, paranormal experiences, lucid dreams, nightmares and sleep paralysis.
Ellipses indicate latent variables, squares measure variables, and “e” represents measurement errors. The lines between the latent variables represent normalized coefficients; ∗p < 0.05, ∗∗p < 0.01.